INTRODUCTION:

  • Herbal treatment in general
  • Herbs for Hair (Review)
  • Evidence Based Medicine
  • Effect of radiation & chemotherapy on Hair

Types of Chemotherapy

Types of chemotherapy and Chemo Treatments - Chemotherapy is most effective at killing cells that are rapidly dividing. Unfortunately, chemotherapy does not know the difference between the cancerous cells and the normal cells. The normal cells will grow back and be healthy but in the meantime, side effects occur.

There are various types of Chemotherapies:

  • Alkylating agents
  • Plant Alkaloids
  • Antitumor Antibiotics
  • Antimetabolites
  • Topoisomerase inhibitors
  • Miscellaneous Antineoplastics

AIM OF STUDY:

Immune suppression has recently been accompanied by a flare of Seborrhoeic Dermatitis & Psoriasis. This fact became more evident with the spread of AIDS epidemic-.. Chemotherapy causes immune suppression analogous to that caused by AIDS . Hence , it is expected that such patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer treatment will suffer from these two conditions . The aim of this study was to assess the following :

  • The extent of Psoriasis & Seborrhoea following chemotherapy.
  • Effects of “Joyeria” hair mask on these two conditions.
  • Possible effects of “Joyeria” hair mask on the promotion of hair regrowth after chemotherapy.

MATERIAL & METHODS:

1. PATIENTS:

2. MATERIAL APPLIED:

3. HOW APPLIED

4. METHOD OF EVALUATION:

CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION

a. REGARDING SEBORRHOEA

b. REGARDING PSORIASIS

c. REGARDING HAIR GROWTH

5. RESULTS

6. DISCUSSION

Immunosuppression is not only the result of diseases
of the immune system, but is increasingly a consequence
of treatment such as chemotherapy which impairs
immune function. Limiting this so-called ‘iatrogenic’ or
‘physician-induced’ immunosuppression is a major
challenge to modern-day physicians.
q Host defence to fungal infections
The body’s natural barriers, i.e. the skin and epithelial
surfaces, form the first line of defence against many
mycoses. Hence, any breach in these barriers, such as
burns, intravenous catheters or the destruction of
epithelial surfaces, as in gastrointestinal surgery, pose a
major risk of fungal invasion. Fungal entry is followed by
defence reactions such as phagocytosis and fungal
killing, mainly by white blood cells, the neutrophils and
mononuclear phagocytes. Therefore, the risk of infection
is also increased by diseases and treatments that reduce
the numbers of phagocytes, such as cancers, or those
causing neutrophil dysfunction, such as diabetes
mellitus. Optimal phagocytosis requires blood factors
such as complement and chemotaxins that direct
neutrophils to pathogens, which may be defective in an
immunocompromised patient. More specific immunity
to particular fungi relies on presentation of fungal
antigens to T-lymphocytes by dedicated antigen-
presenting cells which activate effector cell pathways in
cell-mediated and humoral immunity, resulting in long-
lasting immune defences.
Although a single factor may lead to immuno-
compromise, both suppression of immune function and
the risk factors for the establishment of a fungal infection
are often combined in seriously ill patients. For example,
a patient with acute myeloblastic leukaemia, whose
circulating immature blood cells (blasts) are dys-
functional, will undergo chemotherapy, which
dramatically reduces the number of neutrophils
(neutropenia).
Mycoses associated with defects in cell-mediated
immunity
Impairment of the cell-mediated immune response to
fungal infection can be congenital or acquired, primary
or iatrogenic (such as from the use of corticosteroids or
chemotherapy). In the modern era, the HIV pandemic
has caused a major increase in fungal infections, which
often occur in disseminated and atypical forms.
Manifestations of immune suppression on the skin
Seborrhoeic dermatitis, folliculitis, shingles, Molluscum contagiosum, ulcers – mucosal and gluteal cleft, straightening/softening/loss of hair,
Seborrhoeic dermatitis caused by Malassezia
furfuroccurs in patients with HIV infection at four-times
the rate of the normal population, and it is up to 10-fold
more common in AIDS.
As modern medicine advances
with more transplantation, increasingly successful
methods for treating cancer and improvements in the
care of the critically ill, the ‘reaction’ of iatrogenic
immuno-supression continues to take its toll in terms of
morbidity and mortality from fungal diseases.

Seborrhoeic dermatitis literally means inflammation of the oil-forming glands in the skin, particularly in hairy parts of the body such as the scalp, chest and groin, but also affecting the forehead, cheeks and nose. It is a very common problem in people with symptomatic HIV infection and immune suppression induced by other causes as cancer and chemotherapy.

The Malassezia species of yeasts have been implicated in several skin conditions including seborrhoeic dermatitis.

Symptoms and diagnosis

The symptoms are usually faint reddish patches on the skin that are sometimes swollen. The surface may be covered with greasy-looking yellow scales.

It can usually be diagnosed by a physical examination, but may sometimes be confused with other skin problems such as psoriasis. If necessary, laboratory examination can reveal distinctive features that make a definitive diagnosis of seborrhoeic dermatitis possible.

What is dandruff

Dandruff is skin flakes that sheds from your hair and ends upon your shoulders, which can be mild or severe.
In reality, it is a mild form of seborrhoeic dermatitis, which is a disorder of the scalp. Dandruff is very common. When you think it, think of seborrhoeic dermatitis.
It’s a disorder caused by the excess formation of sebum, secretion of oil glands in the skin. The irritation due to this causes dandruff, producing dry or greasy scales. It may produce red patches of the scalp with large scales and sometimes a thick crest. The condition becomes worse by sweating. The skin on the scalp gets cracked, becomes rough, dry and itchy.

What is alopecia or hair loss?

Hair loss is a major problem these days. There are many causes for hair loss and the proper treatment depends upon the root cause of hair loss, which varies from person to person. Inherited characteristics and sex hormones play a significant role in hair loss in both men and women. It is a mistake to simply assume the onset of hair loss is inevitable and cannot be cured. Some forms of baldness are even temporary.
What causes hair loss

  • Low thyroid function (hypothyroidism) can cause a thick oily scalp, with coarse sparse hair, or actual baldness. Over active thyroid function (hyperthyroidism) results in sparse fine hairs.
  • Damage of pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid gland, sex glands and adrenal cortex also result in hair loss.
  • Excess formation of male hormones due to any of the disorders can be a cause of hair fall.
  • Heredity may also play an important role.
  • Inadequate calories and insufficient protein intake.
  • Severe psychic stress results in sudden loss of hair. Biological stress is a more common cause of sudden hair loss. Any number of surgical operations, haemorrhage or shock associated with an accident can cause it.
  • Post partum alopecia - About two to five months after having a baby, women may suddenly start loosing hair. The hair loss may continue for several months.
  • Pressure alopecia may occur in a baby if the head rests continuously on one area. The same can happen in adults confined to bed who rest most of the time with pressure on the back of the head or persistently on one area of the head.
  • Severe fever or any illness associated with prolonged fever.
  • Diseases, particularly those associated with weight loss, which usually means poor nutrition. This includes cancer of lymphoma group.
  • Certain beauty practices can lead you to hair loss. Hair styles that cause pulling on the hair providing constant traction cause traction alopecia, when the hair is pulled back from the frontal hairline, as in a ponytail, top knot etc.  Alopecia may occur in those who straighten their hair with a hot comb and use hot petrolatum with iron e.g., crimping or hot water bath etc. This causes thermal damage to the hair follicle and may eventually lead to irreversible destruction of hair follies.
  • Certain techniques can damage the hair shaft, but it won’t affect the hair growth. It can become dry and cracked or broken if not properly cared for, or if subjected to harsh chemicals e.g., hair bleaching and colouring (highlighting).
  • Many medicines may cause hair loss. The most common are those, which are used for chemotherapy, in the treatment of cancer, particularly doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. If such drugs are prescribed, physicians warn the patients in advance.
  • Medicines used to treat high blood pressure, angina pectoris and hypercholestrolemia; medicines used to treat arthritis (penicillamine, indocin, naprosyn and methotrexate), parkinson’s disease (levodopa); any other medication which has an androgenic (male) hormone action, such as - anabolic steroids, often used by athletes and bodybuilders or danocrine used for treating endometriosis in women causes hair loss. Oral contraceptives may sometimes causes loss of hair.

Ayurvedic Treatment of Alopecia.

This treatments contains  oil base applications which are made from following main herbs...
ECLIPTA ALBA (BRINGRAJ) EMBLICA OFFICINALIS (AMLA) INDIGOFERA TINCTORIA (BRAHMI) CYPRUS ROTUNDUS (GUNJA) GLYCERRHIZA GLABRA (YASTIMADHU)
ALOEVERRA JATAMANSI SATAVATI TULSI
Ayurveda treatment is 100% safe, Absolutely harmless, very effective and free from toxic effects.
Henna is Lawsonia Inermis, family Lythraceae
 
Henna is a small tree or large shrub, growing to six meters high. It has lateral branches with leaves that grow in pairs, two to four centimeters. long.

Henna Branch

Henna is a juvenile plant for the first two years. The leaves do not have high lawsone content, and the branches do not have thorns. In mature plants, thorns develop at the leaf buds during dormant phases. When hungry animals come to nibble the new leaves, they prick their tongues on the thorns and go look for another plant to eat.

thorns

Henna leaves have a red-orange dye, lawsone, and the highest dye concentration is in the petiole (the central vein). Young leaves have the highest petiole dye content. Older leaves have lower dye content. In the picture below, you can see the higher concentration of Lawsone in the petiole (the central vein ) of the smaller, younger leaves. All leaves were taken from a 3 year old potted plant in a growth surge during a period of 95 fahrenheit (35 celsius) weather with 2 cm per week precipitation.

leaves with lawsone

High lawsone in petiole of younger leaves at left Actual size of largest leaf 4 cm

Henna will only grow where minimum temperatures stay above 50 degrees fahrenheit or 11 celsius. It will tolerate extreme heat and long droughts. It grows wild near desert oasis, and in semi-aid regions. It thrives in alluvial soils, where there is annual precipitation of 0.2 to 4.2 meters and a soil pH of 4.3 to 8.0 . In ideal conditions, the plant is cultivated for body art quality henna. In slightly less than ideal conditions, it is cultivated for hair quality henna. In cooler, more moist conditions, it is cultivated as a flowering hedgerow shrub. It can be grown as a houseplant in cooler climates. The flowers are fragrant, and may be white, red, pink or yellow. The four-petaled flowers grow in a branching clusters like a cluster of lilac blossoms

Henna Cluster


In the southern and western Mediterranean countries, henna flowers bloom in April and May.  The henna fruits ripen at the end of the summer. In each henna fruit there is an average of 40 - 45 seeds.

Henna Fruits


Henna seeds are very small and polygonal

henna seeds

Henna Seeds: actual size of seed is 1 - 2 mm

The plant can be propagated by rooting the cuttings, or sewing seeds

Henna Blossoms are so fragrant, they've been used in perfumes since 1500 BCE. They were the Prophet Mohammed's favorite scent. Would you like to smell them? The Henna Page send you a sample each of three kinds of Henna Blossom Attar. These samples are a few drops of each attar oil on a cotton ball, just enough for you to experience the wonderful fragrances! Henna flower attars are called Gulhina Attar and are produced commercially in Uttar Pradesh, India. In the Ebers Papyrus, henna is used for skin diseases, as opposed to respiratory, heart or circulatory diseases, so the use seems to be knowledgeable and appropriate.

One remedy for “scabs in every limb” features henna. “Scabs in every limb” could be ringworm, or another fungal skin disease, or it could be some other source of open lesions.

Henna has been used to paint the skin for adornment and for religious reasons for 9000 years and in over 60 countries. Christians, Jews, Muslims, Hindus, and Buddhists have used henna as part of their social and religious customs. Particularly well known is the tradition of "The Night of the Henna" (also called the Mehndi ceremony). It is held sometime before the wedding ceremony and consists of applying mehndi (henna paint) on the hands of the bride. It is a very festive occasion that is accompanied by dancing and feasting. This ceremony probably originated in the Muslim world and was adopted by the Jewish and other religions around 1000 BCE and is actively practiced to this day.

Henna is the Arabic name for a bush whose botanical name is Lawsonia (inermis, alba). It grows only in climates in which the nights are always warm, in Asia, the eastern Mediterranean, and North Africa. The leaves harvested from this bush are dried and powdered. The powder is mixed with oil, lemon, and various other ingredients, and the resultant paste is then applied to the skin and left there for several hours (6-12) in a hot and humid environment. The pigment binds to the skin and achieves the desired stain (tattoo). The longer the henna> remains in contact with the skin, the darker will be the resulting color.

Pre-made paste or "do-it-yourself" kits are commercially available. Alternatively, the tattooing paste can be blended from the raw natural powder which is mixed with other ingredients according to an endless number of recipes. The paste releases a dye (hennotannic acid), which has a high affinity for skin keratin, and this is what stains the skin. The henna stain lasts until the outer layer of the skin exfoliates. This takes several weeks for skin as thick as the soles of the feet, about three weeks for ordinary skin, and one week for areas with very thin skin. Henna is also widely used as a hair dye and as a type of nail "polish."

Skin markings in external radiotherapy by temporary tattooing with henna: improvement of accuracy and increased patient comfort. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2001 May 1;50(1):179-81 (ISSN: 0360-3016) Wurstbauer K; Sedlmayer F; Kogelnik HD Landesklinik fuer Radiotherapie und Radio-Onkologie, Landeskliniken Salzburg, Muellner Hauptstr. 48, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria. k.wurstbauer@lks.at.

PURPOSE:

To guarantee invariable skin markings in patients undergoing a course of external radiotherapy, especially using conformal techniques. Cutaneous markings with henna also increase patient comfort, because washing and showering are allowed.

METHODS AND MATERIALS:

Henna, a completely natural product, is a skin colorant with a history of 5,000 years. It is applied to the skin in the form of a paste. While drying, henna stains the superficial skin layers for several weeks, and the marked area can be exposed to water arbitrarily. In case of fading of the stain before the end of radiotherapy, the marking procedure can be repeated. From November 1998 until March 2000, we performed skin markings with henna in 158 patients with different tumor sites. The majority of patients received conformal radiotherapy techniques. All patients have been evaluated concerning durability of the markings.

RESULTS:

The median durability of henna staining is 23 days (range 12-48 days). On average, two marking procedures (range 1-4) are necessary for a patient treated with curative intent. Although washing and showering are freely permitted, no adverse cutaneous side effects (e.g., erythema, allergic reactions) have been observed. CONCLUSIONS: Skin marking by temporary tattooing with henna increases the accuracy of external radiotherapy. It yields stable and invariable markings for the entire course of radiotherapy and also increases the comfort of patients.

ANTI-OXIDANT AND ANTI-TUMOR EFFECT OF HENNA

Modulatory effect of henna leaf (Lawsonia inermis) on drug metabolising phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and chemically induced skin and forestomach papillomagenesis in mice. Mol Cell Biochem 2003 Mar;245(1-2):11-22 (ISSN: 0300-8177) Dasgupta T; Rao AR; Yadava PK Cancer Biology and Applied Molecular Biology Laboratories, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. Henna leaf (Lawsonia inermis), commonly known as Mehndi is cultivated throughout India and is a very popular natural dye to color hand and hair. It is an integral part of indigenous culture, and is also known for its medicinal value. The effect of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of 80% ethanolic extract of the fresh leaves of Lawsonia inermis were examined on drug metabolizing phase-I and phase-II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 7 weeks old Swiss albino mice. Also anticarcinogenic potential of Henna leaf extract was studied adopting the protocol of benzo(a)pyrene induced forestomach and 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and croton oil-promoted skin papillomagenesis. Our primary findings reveal the 'duel-acting' nature of henna leaf as deduced from its potential to induce only the phase-II enzyme activity, associated mainly with carcinogen detoxification in liver of mice and inhibit the phase I enzyme activities. The hepatic glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase specific activities were elevated above basal (p < 0.005) level by Lawsonia inermis extract treatment. With reference to antioxidant enzymes the investigated doses were effective in increasing the hepatic glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities significantly (from p < 0.05 to p < 0.005) at both the dose levels. Reduced glutathione (GSH) measured as non-protein sulphydryl was found to be significantly elevated in liver (p < 0.005) and in all the extrahepatic organs studied (from p < 0.05 to p < 0.005). Among the extrahepatic organs examined (forestomach, kidney and lung) glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase level were increased in a dose independent manner (from p < 0.05 to p < 0.005). Chemopreventive response was measured by the average number of papillomas per mouse (tumor burden) as well as percentage of tumor bearing animals and tumor multiplicity. There was a significant inhibition of tumor burden in both the tumor model systems studied (from p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). Tumor incidence was also reduced by both the doses used in our experiment in both the model systems.

HENNA MIXED WITH OTHER PLANT EXTRACTS TREATS PARASITES ON THE SCALP

A preliminary pilot survey on head lice, pediculosis in Sharkia Governorate and treatment of lice with natural plant extracts. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2002 Dec;32(3):725-36 (ISSN: 0253-5890) El-Basheir ZM; Fouad MA Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Benha Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt. Twelve different representative areas in Sharkia Governorate were surveyed for head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis. The pre-valence was investigated among 120 houses containing 2,448 individual, with different age, sex and socioeconomic status. Examination was done by naked eye aided with hand-lens. A total of 137 individuals were infested. Infestation rates were higher in the rural areas with low socioeconomic levels, concrete houses with over-crowded family members. Children had significantly higher infestation rates than adults. Males had lower infestation rates than females. However, the hair length and permanent hair washing were the factors accounted for both age and sex difference in prevalence of pediculosis. Head lice infestations were found all over the year, but increased in summer and spring. One hundred infested patients (90 females and 10 males) with different aged and hair length were treated with tour mixed cream from plants Lawsonia alba L. (Henna). Trigonella faemum-gracanum (Fenugreek), Hibiscus cannabinus (Hibiscus) and Artemisia cina (Wormseed). The head lice completely disappeared within a week among those patients treated by henna mixed with aqueous extract of sheah (100%) or mixed with helba (75%) or with karkada (50%).

7.REFERENCES

  • Marc Mendelson :Fungal Infections In The Immunocompromised MICROBIOLOGYTODAY VOL 28/FEB 01
  • Cockerell CJ. Seborrheic dermatitis-like and atopic dermatitis-like eruptions in HIV-infected patients. Clinics in Dermatology 9(1):49-51, 1991.
  • Froschl M et al. Seborrheic dermatitis and atopic eczema in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Seminars in Dermatology 9(3):230-232, 1990.
  • Hammer KA et al. In vitro activities of ketoconazole, ecoazole, Miconazole, and Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against Malassezia species. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 44(2):467-469, 2000.
  • Marino CT et al. Seborrheic dermatitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cutis 48(3):217-218, 1991.
  • Pasricha J, Gupta R, Panjwani S. Contact dermatitis to henna (Lawsonia). Contact Dermatitis 1980;6:288-289.
  • igam P, Saxena A. Allergic contact dermatitis from henna. Contact Dermatitis 1988;18:55-56.
  • Wantke F, Gotz M, Jarisch R. Contact dermatitis due to henna, solvent red 1 and solvent red 3. A case report. Contact Dermatitis 1992;27:346-347.
  • Gupta B, Mathur A, Agarwal C, Singh A. Contact sensitivity to henna. Contact Dermatitis 1986;15:303-304.
  • Garcia Ortiz J, Terron M, Bellido J. Contact allergy to henna. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1997;114:298-299.